The sight of a tug towing a barge is probably a very common sight one would observe along the Malacca Straits or even on waters surrounding South East Asia and Asian countries. So common that it may sometimes be seen as just another type of sea transportation mode which is considered relatively simpler, but at times and quite inaccurately, regarded as lower risk compared to transporting goods using larger vessel. The reality is far from these assumptions and reasons for this will be elaborated on further in this article.
Barges, on which cargoes are shipped, are usually non self-propelled and therefore dependent on a tug for propulsion; where the tug is the prime mover for the barge, connected to the barge using a towline. Distance between both can reach 200 metres and more.
There are a couple of reasons that lead to barge shipments being so popular and common within the Asia Pacific region. Among them is accessibility advantage as tugs and barges are smaller with much lower draught compared to larger vessels, therefore able to access locations not accessible to large vessels. Another reason would be cheaper mode of transport as these vessels are much cheaper to operate and maintain, compared to larger ocean-going vessels. Others would include versatility in which to a certain extent, barges are almost like a general cargo vessel, able to transport a wide variety of cargo, albeit in much smaller quantities.
The most common configuration is the single tow, where one tug tows one barge. Another configuration is the tandem tow, also termed double tow, where one tug tows two barges, which possess higher risk compared to a single tow. Other types of configuration would be tandem and breasted tugs, where two tugs are used to pull one tow unit and termed according to the positioning of the tugs.
There are a number of characteristics that would increase the probability of a loss materialising. One of these is when a tug or barge is unclassed or classed by a classification society that is not a member of the International Association of Classification Society (IACS). This would likely lead to the vessel not complying with international maritime standards. Another would be the over age, especially if unclassed/non-IACS classed, where the vessel is not maintained and operated to the required standards, which among others, could lead to loss of propulsion or structural failure.
Another characteristic is when the tug does not have the minimum power to tow the barge, in turn causes the tug to lose control of the barge especially during rough sea conditions. Other characteristics would be little or no Port State Control (PSC) Inspections history, owners/operators with poor reputation, vessel flagged in little known or PSC blacklisted flags.
As a minimum, always request for:
When in doubt, always refer to your insurer for specialist advice and assistance.
Written by Sivakumaran Divakaran
Capt. Siva is the Head of Transportation Risk Management for Asia Pacific and has over 20 years of experience in the marine industry. Capt. Siva is a qualified Master Mariner having served at sea for about 10 years mainly on board general cargo and bulk carriers, as well as multi-purpose and offshore drilling vessels. Prior to joining Chubb, he was Principal Surveyor at an international surveying firm in Malaysia. For the past decade, he specialised in marine risk management through a wide spectrum of marine-related risk minimizing and prevention surveys. Capt. Divakaran holds a C.O.C Class 1 Master Mariner (Unlimited - Foreign Going). Contact Capt. Siva for more details: Sivakumaran.Divakaran@chubb.com